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Bincang Ringan Soal Strategi Nasional Kecerdasan Artifisial di Indonesia

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Terkait dengan kajian dan upaya penerapan Strategi Nasional Kecerdasan Artifisial di Indonesia, ada baiknya kita melakukan studi komparasi dengan inisiatif yang juga dilakukan beberapa negara adidaya terkait dengan nilai strategis artificial Intelligence.

US sebagai salah satu negara pelopor dalam bidang pengembangan sains dan pemanfaatan teknologi di era pemerintahan Trump telah mengeluarkan Executive Order 13859 yang bertarikh 11 Februari 2019, yang antara lain berisi 5 prinsip dasar inisiatif KA Amerika Serikat yang isinya adalah sebagai berikut:

(a) The United States must drive technological breakthroughs in AI across the Federal Government, industry, and academia in order to promote scientific discovery, economic competitiveness, and national security.

(b) The United States must drive development of appropriate technical standards and reduce barriers to the safe testing and deployment of AI technologies in order to enable the creation of new AI-related industries and the adoption of AI by today’s industries.

(c) The United States must train current and future generations of American workers with the skills to develop and apply AI technologies to prepare them for today’s economy and jobs of the future.

(d) The United States must foster public trust and confidence in AI technologies and protect civil liberties, privacy, and American values in their application in order to fully realize the potential of AI technologies for the American people.

(e) The United States must promote an international environment that supports American AI research and innovation and opens markets for American AI industries, while protecting our technological advantage in AI and protecting our critical AI technologies from acquisition by strategic competitors and adversarial nations.

Tak hanya itu saja, selain 5 prinsip dasar yang menjadi “ruh” strategi pengembangan KA di USA, dalam seksi 2 executive order atau setara Keputusan Presiden di RI itu, terdapat arahan terkait dengan tujuan (objective) dalam penerapan KA di berbagai fungsi eksekutif pemerintahan federal US yang diharapkan dapat menjamin dan meningkatkan kapasitas US dalam konteks penerapan KA di berbagai bidang strategis.

Adapun objectives di seksi 2 Executive Order 13859 itu antara lain adalah sebagai berikut:

(a) Promote sustained investment in AI R&D in collaboration with industry, academia, international partners and allies, and other non-Federal entities to generate technological breakthroughs in AI and related technologies and to rapidly transition those breakthroughs into capabilities that contribute to our economic and national security.

(b) Enhance access to high-quality and fully traceable Federal data, models, and computing resources to increase the value of such resources for AI R&D, while maintaining safety, security, privacy, and confidentiality protections consistent with applicable laws and policies.

(c) Reduce barriers to the use of AI technologies to promote their innovative application while protecting American technology, economic and national security, civil liberties, privacy, and values.

(d) Ensure that technical standards minimize vulnerability to attacks from malicious actors and reflect Federal priorities for innovation, public trust, and public confidence in systems that use AI technologies; and develop international standards to promote and protect those priorities.

(e) Train the next generation of American AI researchers and users through apprenticeships; skills programs; and education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), with an emphasis on computer science, to ensure that American workers, including Federal workers, are capable of taking full advantage of the opportunities of AI.

(f) Develop and implement an action plan, in accordance with the National Security Presidential Memorandum of February 11, 2019 (Protecting the United States Advantage in Artificial Intelligence and Related Critical Technologies) (the NSPM) to protect the advantage of the United States in AI and technology critical to United States economic and national security interests against strategic competitors and foreign adversaries.

Sementara di Indonesia ada fenomena yang menarik, dimana inisiatif untuk menggulirkan Strategi Nasional Kecerdasan Artificial berasal dan bersumber dari partisipasi aktif para pemangku kepentingan (stakeholder) yang secara tidak langsung merepresentasikan unsur pentahelix. Perwakilan cendekiawan berlatar akademisi dan praktisi, bersama pemangku kebijakan berlatar birokrasi, unsur bisnis, dan perwakilan komunitas bersama membangun konsep society yang bersifat partisipatoris aktif dalam menggulirkan inisiatif bersama yang diharapkan mampu menggerakkan potensi lintas sektoral.

Cakupan pengembangan KA dan penerapannya dalam multi lapis dimensi secara vertikal dan multi aspek secara transversal telah melahirkan panduan Strategi Nasional Kecerdasan Artifisial melalui wadah kelembagaan PIKA yang semula bernaung di BPPT-BRIN dan kini estafetnya sebagian diteruskan oleh KORIKA sebagai representasi pemangku kepentingan yang diharapkan dapat menjadi strategic think tank partnership dalam merumuskan berbagai kebijakan lintas disiplin terkait dengan upaya mengakselerasi inisiasi proses adopsi teknologi KA sebagai salah satu upaya kita untuk melakukan quantum leap dalam penguasaan teknologi avant garde.

Strategi komprehensif yang telah dikembangkan diharapkan mampu mengakomodir semua aspek dan prasyarat untik terciptanya ekosistem riset dan pengembangan KA di Indonesia. Mulai dari ranah pendidikan, manajemen talenta, kemitraan dan alih teknologi, fasilitasi riset dan pengembangan, sampai pemetaan dan perencanaan strategis optimasi pemanfaatan KA dalam berbagai bidang adalah salah satu upaya sistematik yang niscaya dapat dilakukan.

Edukasi secara berkesinambungan tentang kapasitas dan kemampuan KA dalam mengoptimasi utilitas sistem lintas sektoral perlu ditekankan agar melahirkan kesadaran akan kebutuhan (needs) pada kelompok pengguna potensial.

Seiring dengan terbangunnya ekosistem riset dan inovasi lintas genre yang dapat menghasilkan inovasi terobosan tepat guna yang sesuai dan kebutuhan riil yang dihadapi oleh berbagai sektor, misal di domain pelayanan publik, mitigasi kebencanaan, agroindustri, sampai kesehatan dan kesejahteraan rakyat.

Integrasi berbagai potensi dasar yang saat ini menjadi national capital seperti big data dan adanya upaya standarisasi satu data nasional, serta penerapan konsep distributed ledger termasuk oleh lembaga-lembaga pengolah data kredensial adalah potensi besar yang dapat dikembangkan sebagai titik acuan menuju smart nation system berbasis KA.

Tentu semua inisiatif tersebut di sisi lain harus mampu pula mengakomodir terciptanya suatu model bisnis yang dapat menghadirkan habitat sehat bagi entitas bisnis multigenre untuk mengembangkan kapasitas produksinya, wa bil khusus yang terkait dengan produk KA.

Jika sudah terencana cetak biru yang dapat menghubungkan setiap titik fungsional (connecting the dots) dalam kerangka besar strategi nasional KA, kita mulai dapat mengembangkan pendekatan multi layer yang diharapkan dapat mengakomodir kehadiran support system seperti infrastruktur, sumber daya, dan juga kebijakan yang memberi jaminan bahwa penerapan strategi nasional KA dapat dijaga kebersinambungannya. 🙏🏿

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